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. started in 1912, the anc was created to peacefully advocate for political rights for south africa's blacks. mandela sees the future of the organization. >> he said we at the anc wanted to be a mass organization, and we needed a mass leader. and wen thun day nelson mandela walked into his office. he realized that's the guy. >> reporter: he becomes mandela's mentor and encourages him to earn a law degree. he also introduces mandela to his young cousin, evelyn masi. the two marry in 1946 and welcomed their first child, a son, that same year. their family will eventually grow to include another son and a daughter. another daughter had been born in 1947 but died within a year. racism and segregation had existed in south africa for as long as there had been white settlers, the majority of them were descendants of the dutch and call themselves afrikaners. in 1948 the national party sweeps boo powers and codifies those apartheid policies into law. >> they were trying to achieve this kind of ethnic fragmentation of the country here in order to give the afrikaner nation its own homeland. >> reporter
mandela was in his early 40s. he had joined the african national congress, the anc, way back in 1944. the anc and the other major organizations opposing apartheid in south africa had been organized as nonviolent movements, nonviolent resistance, and nonviolent organizing. but after sharpville, they decided that maybe that wasn't enough. after sharpville, they decided they would form a paramilitary wing, and nelson mandela was one of the anc leader who is went underground to help start it. they said they would target government buildings and strategic infrastructure and they would try to sabotage the state. after sharpville, the government of south africa started mass arrests of anc leaders and other activists. they banned the anc. they made it illegal to be a member of that group. nelson mandela was arrested for treason in 1961, he was acquitted and he was convicted of traveling illegally. they sentenced him to five years hard labor on south africa's version of alcatraz, which is robin island. while he was already serving that sentence, while he was already in prison, they put him on
winnie mandela was, what was apartheid, what is anc, that is african national congress. it took years leading up to dive divestment. because i was fortunate enough to serve on the board of trans africa we were part of the strategy that not only did rallying and arrested at the embassy and took over the south african consulate in los angeles but economic sanctions were extremely important to put pressure on the south african government to help bring down the unconscionable apartheid. so it took work, hard work. >> there was a movement across the country as congressman mentioned on campuses everywhere. i was covering it. ron, you in congress with a number of leaders an then some republicans joining in to try to finally pass the legislation. you authored one piece of legislation. it was compromised and finally passed and overrode veto. jim baker said on "morning joe" today, this was a time when congress took on the foreign policy, first override of foreign policy veto of a president in that century. >> it really was. first let me say, i'm honored to be with my sister and friend maxine wa
. with him no longer as the spiritual leader of the anc. at least no longer on this earth. what is that going to do to politics going forward? >> when he walked away and said don't call me, i'll call you, he left politics. so for a number of years now, he has not been on the scene. i think to a certain extent, that's unfortunate. i think that this young democracy is having some missteps. >> it does feel that way. >> a few stumbles. it's difficult because mandela has not been there to way in. maybe at this moment when people are not on the streets, but contemplating what mandela stood for, they might come to a better moment than they are in currently. >> put into perspective, that was an amazing three or four-year period in history. when you look back, it's stunning and like how did we lose the momentum? we were almost there. >> it takes -- you did have prague and the berlin wall and the leaders who were able to have a vision. bush 41 had a vision in terms of german reunionification. there were leaders in different parts of the world. >> who seize the moment. >>a i new economic freedom was not
in south africa. but having him work with his team and the pollster for the anc during that first election, there were three things that really struck me. one was just his enormous clarity and vision for the country and bringing the country together. the second was his great pragmatism. there were a set of election rules that came down that were really disadvantageous to mandela and to the anc. we were all very upset by those rules, and he was just very calm and said no, we'll make it work. find a way to make it work. he refused to fight over the rules and just said we'll make it work. >> give us some unsight into that. what were his unique qualities that allowed him to make it work? in the face of what seemed to be something that was very difficult if not insurmountable. >> i think, first of all, was just the clarity of his own vision. the amount of thinking that he had done about where he wanted to take the country and what reconciliation meant. and how he had already put that to practice. that was so fundamental to his soul. and what was interesting is, of course, there were many factio
applaud and defer to him was awesome. because in many ways the anc learned from the civil rights movement here, but the giants of the movement here really, really exalted what nelson mandela had done and what he represented. because he became, he personified the very change that he had come to represent universally. and it was reminiscent of the stories i heard from mrs. coretta scott king often about her husband, he late martin luther king. and joining me by phone, the former u.s. ambassador to the united nations and the former executive director of dr. king's sclc. thank you very being with us tonight. >> thank you very much and god bless you. and this is really, you know, for african folk and people of african descent, the going home is a celebration, it's not a sad time. and if there's anybody that can go home with a victory, it's nelson mandela. he was able to lead his people to triumph and hate. forgiveness in place of vengeance. and south africa is a democratic free market economy right now that's still struggling, but there's a spirit about that place that always gets you going. i
's. my husband was a pat, pan african congress, mr. mandela was founder of anc, african national congress, others south african national union. i was used to those men and a few women shouting and screaming at each other. they were really arch rivals. when mr. mandela came, he didn't raise his voice. he didn't argue with anybody. he didn't put anybody down. they were rivals. i had never met a south african who wasn't shouting and really angry all the time. i know he was angry, but he didn't use his energy foolishly. so it was a year after that he was imprisoned. i became friends with his wife then, winnie mandela. and we continued to support each other over the years and over the oceans. and she would tell me how he was. he wasn't vitt uperative with t guards. i was part of hillary clinton's delegates when he was inaugurated. i sat there and watched the guards, who had guarded him for 27 years, sitting in the right sights, in the best seats, invited by mr. mandela. not to say look how you treated me. i'm free now and i can ya ya ya at you, not that at all. in fact, he was gracious, welcom
arrests for peaceful protests, anc's protest land mandela in prison for 27 years on charges of attempting to overthrow the government. the terms were notorious and brutal. the sentence confined him to a small cell for 27 years. for 18 of those years, mandela was allowed only one visitor a year for 30 minutes. he was able to write and receive one letter every six months and he was sentenced to hard labor. in those same decades that mandela lost his eldest son and mother, he was not allowed to attend their funerals. the miracle of mandela, after missing three decades of his life, after being closed off from three decades of change in the world mandela emerged without bitterness and without spite. upon his release mandela emerged hopeful. so hopeful he remained committed to working with the very same people who once imprisoned him all in the name of finding a solution for the people of south africa. when i walked out of prison, he wrote in his autobiography, it was my mission to liberate the oppressed and oppressor both. to be free is not merely to cast off one's chains but live in a way tha
to the truth. the united states was against the anc, the african national congress, because they were communists, they were backed by the ussr, and the united states being staunchly anti-communist, that's the right team, but they might have made the wrong choice. likewise, nelson mandela mail d the same exact mistake. he embraced countries like cuba, he misidentified them as comrades, when it should have been the people in the countries he identified with, because they were people under the thumb of gadhafi and under the thumb of khomeini and other nondemocratic countries. one thing you learned is how ideology at times can blind you to some very important facts. in the '80s, i was staunch anti-communist. i didn't pay attention to south africa. all i knew the anc was being backed by comb anytime munists learned that south africa was wrong. if you feel really strongly about this man, you can still act, because there's plenty of people around the world who are under the thumb of evil. and there's a lot of celebrities who don't care. there are women still being circumcised in africa. it's
understand from many high ranking anc officials homeland security continues to treat some of them as needing a waiver to get into the united states, which is an embarrassment and what secretary rice said today, at the time, we can't allow president mandela, a man of his stature to be continue to be treated as a terrorist by the united states. we needed to do this and do it before he passed away. but also, we need to honor his memory today by also making sure that homeland security honors of legislation that secretary kerry and for that matter senator obama when they were both senators, helped to pass. so, yes, officially they are off the terror list but the way in which homeland security continues to interpret the laws, they are creating problems for the united states. >> that history is a reminder as we're in a moment of what we call international unity, the foreign policy legacy of everything related to the apartheid regime was divided in this country and many other nations. you look at say the early origins of investment campaign where a young barack obama as a student was involved, many
. generally they don't give you insure ance if you don't cut th a check. is this going to encourage enrollment? as ed just talked about, getting people on the website, the bigger problem may be getting them actually covered. mark is with me tonight. with the american enterprise institute and former speechwriter for former president bush. shouldn't the paying part be the easiest, most seamless part of the process, mark? >> you would think the business would want to get your money. but again, we aren't dealing with the private sector, we are dealing with the government. just this weekend, they said, the website is working with, this is a quote, private sector velocity and effectiveness. they actually said that. unless works 90% of the time, unless it is under maintenance, doesn't transmit your information where you make a purchase, and have an on-line waiting room where you can park until there is capacity for you to shop. and look at the 90% staker. they said it works 90% of the time when it is not under maintenance. what does that mean? they don't say it is under maintenance. it wor
that -- >> yeah, there was who ran ifpd and shootouts and gunfights. i remember going to a lot of anc funerals and ifc funerals -- >> very touch and go. >> given that election -- >> even in the month before, two months before i remember a huge gunfight in johannesburg. >> one of the things, anderson, we walked together on a long walk of freedom that ended at his inauguration. he wanted to do another book not so much from that period to the presidency but how close south africa came to a civil war. i have to say, i don't want to -- the smirks, the reputation of mr. declerk and formed a partnership and couldn't have done it without each other. mandela in conversations with me for "a long walk to freedom" did feel betrayed during the creation of the constitution and that famous scene when they were writing the constitution he chewed out declerk. >> and declerk knows that. he said we have our spots. >>> we'll take a break quick. robin, christiane, rick, donna, stay with us. tweet about your thoughts on mandela and his massing and legacy. use hash tag ac 36 0. charty and friendship. i'll speak with
'm a loyal member of the anc. the world had changed and had to go away from the socialist philosophy. he changed radically in a very short amount of time. one of the things he always said to me, he was never high bound about haenging his mind. he said when circumstances change i changed my mind. what do you do. another great lesson for politicians. so he evolved so tremendously when he came out of prison. it was astonishing to watch. >> it is astonishing. incredible story. >> the transition between icon to being in power is one of those impossible things to do. >> it was much more difficult coming out of prison and being a practical politician than being in prison. mandela's greatest teacher said i haven't had a good night's sleep since i left prison because now have responsibility. >> in 1994 brian williams interviewed nelson mandela. he asked him about his predecessor f.w. de klerk. >> my relationship with mr. de klerk and he's one of those south africans that i hold in high regard. we have had differences where we said cruel things to each other but at the end of the day, we're able t
-communist and he never lost that. there were parts of his coalition, the anc, that were pro-communist. correct me if i'm wrong, but mandela always down through the years, when he got his freedom, when he took office and afterwards, was a firm anti-communist. >> well, he was -- i don't know fully whether he was a firm anti-communist in the sense of what you call soviet communism, but he was firm in that he did not want to give the impression that he was going to turn black nationalism into black racial discrimination against whites. >> i think that really is the point, mr. johnson. he was first and foremost an african nationalist. there were communists who wanted to coopt, if you will, the movement there and he once famously went onstage at a rally of i believe the african national congress and tore up the posters of the communists who had tried to sort of commandeer the movement over there. larry, a moment ago used the word forgiveness. there was a divineness about this man's spirit, wasn't there? >> i think you would have to say if anybody would ever dare say that someone carried a christ-like m
Search Results 0 to 13 of about 14